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Failure to Launch

Young men's "failure to launch" has been documented in a number of studies over the past few years.  What follows is a list of some of these studies.  The list is not comprehensive and is updated by The Boys Initiative on an ongoing basis.  Where available, contact information for the author(s) is included in the listing.  Readers are encouraged to contact The Boys Initiative with information on either their own work or the work of others, for possible inclusion in the list, at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

A Tutorial on Why Boys Fail, by Richard Whitmire (Power Point presentation)

Data from the 100 Girls Project 
Thomas Mortenson's research comparing metrics of boys' development for every 100 girls
For every 100 girls…Tom Mortenson Postsecondary Education OPPORTUNITY April 1, 2011

Birth and Death

For every 100 girls that are conceived 115 boys are conceived.
www.wirednewyork.com/forum/archive/index.php/t-3840.html

For every 100 girl babies born there are 105 boy babies born.
For every 100 girl babies who die in the first 27 days of life 125 boy babies die.
For every 100 girl babies who die after the first 27 days but in the first year of life 130 boy babies die. 
For every 100 girls ages 1 to 4 years who die 127 boys die.
For every 100 girls ages 5 to 14 years who die 140 boys die.
For every 100 girls and women ages 15 to 24 years who die 292 boys and men die. 
www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_19.pdf

K-12 Education

For every 100 girls enrolled in nursery school there are 98 boys enrolled.
For every 100 girls enrolled in kindergarten there are 107 boys enrolled.
www.census.gov/topics/education/school-enrollment.html 

For every 100 girls who repeat kindergarten 194 boys repeat kindergarten.
For every 100 girls whose entry into kindergarten is delayed 150 boys are delayed. 
nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006064.pdf

For every 100 girls enrolled in elementary grades there are 105 boys enrolled.
www.census.gov/topics/education/school-enrollment.html

For every 100 fourth grade girls who do one or more hours of homework each day 92 boys do the same. 
For every 100 fourth grade girls who watch television four or more hours per day 123 boys do. 
For every 100 girls ages 9 to 11 years enrolled below modal grade there are 130 boys enrolled below modal grade. 
For every 100 girls ages 12 to 14 years enrolled below modal grade there are 120 boys enrolled below modal grade.
nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_155.asp

For every 100 girls ages 15 to 17 years enrolled below modal grade there are 130 boys enrolled below modal grade.
For every 100 girls enrolled in ninth grade there are 107 boys enrolled.
For every 100 girls enrolled in tenth grade there are 111 boys enrolled.
www.census.gov/topics/education/school-enrollment.html

For every 100 tenth grade girls who watch television 5 or more hours per day on weekdays 110 tenth grade boys watch television 5 or more hours per day on weekdays. 
For every 100 tenth grade girls who play video or computer games one or more hours per day 322 boys play video or computer games one or more hours per day.
For every 100 tenth grade girls who perform community service at least once a week 68 boys do the same. 
For every 100 tenth grade girls who play non-school sports 169 boys play non- school sports.
For every 100 tenth grade girls who take music, art or language class 52 boys take music, art or language class. 
For every 100 tenth grade girls who read for pleasure one or more hours per day 81 boys read for pleasure one or more hours per day. 
For every 100 tenth grade girls who use a personal computer at home at least once a week 99 boys use a personal computer at home
For every 100 tenth grade girls who work on hobbies at least once a week 104 tenth grade boys work on hobbies. 
For every 100 tenth grade girls who do things with friends at least once a week 77 boys do things with friends. 
For every 100 tenth grade girls who take sports lesions at least once a week 115 boys take sports lesson. 
nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d04/tables/dt04_138.asp

For every 100 girls enrolled in eleventh grade there are 100 boys enrolled.
For every 100 girls enrolled in twelfth grade there are 100 boys enrolled.
www.census.gov/topics/education/school-enrollment.html

For every 100 twelfth grade girls who participate in academic clubs 83 boys participate. 
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who participate in cheerleading or drill team 15 boys participate. 
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who participate in newspaper or yearbook 60 boys participate. 
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who participate in music, drama or debate 70 boys participate.
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who participate in vocational clubs 71 boys participate. 
nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d04/tables/dt04_138.asp

For every 100 high school girls who felt too unsafe to go to school 88 boys felt the same way. 
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who carried a weapon on school property 276 boys carried a weapon. 
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who were threatened or injured with a weapon on school property 175 boys were threatened or injured.
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who engaged in a physical fight on school property 226 boys got into a fight. 
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who had property stolen or deliberately damaged on school property 128 boys had the same experience. 
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who smoked cigarettes on school property 153 boys smoked. 
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who used smokeless tobacco on school property 844 boys did this. 
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who used alcohol on school property 148 boys used alcohol. 
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who used marijuana on school property 225 boys did. 
For every 100 twelfth grade girls who offered, sold or were given an illegal drug on school property 134 boys did the same.
nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d10/tables/dt10_171.asp

For every 100 girls enrolled in high school there are 97 boys enrolled.
For every 100 girls enrolled in gifted and talented programs in public elementary and secondary schools there are 95 boys enrolled. 
www.census.gov/topics/education/school-enrollment.html

For every 100 girls who graduate from high school 96 boys graduate. (NCES, unpublished tabulation.)

For every 100 girls suspended from public elementary and secondary schools 215 boys are suspended. 
For every 100 girls expelled from public elementary and secondary schools 297 boys are expelled. 
For every 100 girls in grades 10 to 12 that drop out of high school 103 boys drop out of high school. 
nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d10/tables/dt10_169.asp

Special Education

For every 100 girls diagnosed with a special education disability 217 boys are diagnosed with a special education disability. 
www.iteachilearn.com/uh/meisgeier/ 

For every 100 girls diagnosed with a learning disability 276 boys are diagnosed with a learning disability. 
For every 100 girls diagnosed with emotional disturbance 324 boys are diagnosed with emotional disturbance. 
For every 100 girls diagnosed with a speech impairment 147 boys are similarly diagnosed. 
For every 100 girls diagnosed with mental retardation 138 boys are diagnosed as mentally retarded. 
For every 100 girls diagnosed with visual impairment 125 boys are visually impaired. 
For every 100 girls diagnosed with hearing impairment 108 boys are diagnosed as hearing impaired. 
For every 100 girls diagnosed with deafness 120 boys have deafness.
For every 100 girls with orthopedic impairment 118 boys have orthopedic impairment. 
For every 100 girls with other health impairment 127 boys have other health impairment.
For every 100 girls with multiple disabilities 189 boys have multiple disabilities. 
For every 100 girls that are deaf/blind 98 boys are deaf/blind.
www.iteachilearn.com/uh/meisgeier/statsgov20gender.htm

Disabilities For every 100 girls less than 15 years old with a severe disability 191 boys have a severe disability. 
www.census.gov/topics/education/school-enrollment.html

For every 100 girls less than 15 years old with a disability and needs assistance 195 boys have a disability and need assistance. 
For every 100 girls less than 3 years old with a developmental delay 165 boys have a developmental delay. 
For every 100 girls less than 3 years old with difficulty moving arms or legs 96 boys have difficulty moving arms or legs. 
For every 100 girls less than 3 years old with no disabilities104 boys have no disabilities. 
For every 100 girls 3 to 5 years old with a developmental delay 154 boys are developmentally delayed. 
For every 100 girls 3 to 5 years old with difficulty walking, running or playing 230 boys the same age have difficulty walking, running or playing.
For every 100 girls 3 to 5 years with no disability 103 boys have no disability.
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old with a severe disability 160 boys have a severe disability. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old with a not severe disability 185 boys have a not severe disability. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old with no disability 99 boys have no disability.
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old who have difficulty doing regular schoolwork 176 boys have difficulty doing regular schoolwork.
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old who have difficulty getting along with others 183 boys have difficulty getting along with others. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old with a learning disability 160 boys have a learning disability. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old with mental retardation 302 boys have mental retardation. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old with other developmental disability 212 boys have other developmental disability. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old with other developmental condition 129 boys have other developmental condition. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old with a developmental disability or condition 142 boys have a developmental disability or condition. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old that use a wheelchair or electric scooter 235 boys use a wheelchair or electric scooter. 
For every 100 girls ages 6 to 14 years that uses a cane/crutches/walker 156 boys used a cane/crutches/walker. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old that had difficulty seeing words/letters 103 boys had difficulty seeing words/letters. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old with difficulty hearing conversation 149 boys had difficulty hearing conversation. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old with speech difficulty 214 boys had speech difficulty. 
For every 100 girls 6 to 14 years old with difficulty walking or running 126 boys had difficulty walking or running. 
For every 100 girls and women ages 15 to 24 years with a severe disability 113 boys and men of the same age range have a severe disability.
For every 100 girls and women ages 15 to 24 years with a disability and need assistance 110 boys and men ages 15 to 24 years have a disability and need assistance. 
www.census.gov/topics/education/school-enrollment.html

Higher Education

For every 100 women enrolled in college there are 78 men enrolled.
For every 100 women enrolled in the first year of college there are 84 men enrolled. 
For every 100 women enrolled in the second year of college there are 78 men enrolled. 
For every 100 women enrolled in the third year of college there are 77 men enrolled. 
For every 100 women enrolled in the fourth year of college there are 81 men enrolled. 
For every 100 women enrolled in the fifth year of college there are 65 men enrolled. 
For every 100 women enrolled in the sixth year or more of college there are 70 men enrolled. 
For every 100 women living in college dormitories there are 87 men living in college dorms. 
www.census.gov/topics/education/school-enrollment.html

For every 100 American women who earn an associate's degree from college 61 American men earn the same degree. 
nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d10/tables/dt10_281.asp

For every 100 American women who earn a bachelor's degree from college 75 American men earn a bachelor's degree. 
For every 100 American women who earn a master's degree from college 66 American men earn the same degree. 
nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d10/tables/dt10_286.asp

For every 100 American women who earn a first-professional degree 104 American men earn a first-professional degree. 
For every 100 American women who earn a doctor's degree from college 91 American men earn the same degree. 
nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d10/tables/dt10_291.asp

Educational Attainment

For every 100 women ages 25 to 29 years who are at least a high school graduate 140 men are at least high school graduates. 
For every 100 women ages 25 to 29 years who have at least some college but no degree 101 men have at least some college but no degree.
For every 100 women ages 25 to 29 years who have at least an associate's degree from college 86 men have at least an associate's degree from college.
For every 100 women ages 25 to 29 years who have at least a bachelor's degree 83 men have at least a bachelor's degree. 
For every 100 women ages 25 to 29 years who have at least a master's degree 69 men have at least a master's degree. 
For every 100 women ages 25 to 29 years who have at least a professional degree 84 men have at least a professional degree. 
For every 100 women ages 25 to 29 years who have a doctorate degree 80 men have a doctorate degree. 
www.census.gov/topics/education/school-enrollment.html

Other Indicators

For every 100 females ages 15 to 19 that commit suicide 549 males in the same range kill themselves. 
For every 100 females ages 20 to 24 that commit suicide 624 males of the same age kill themselves. 
www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/dvs/LCWK1_2002.pdf

For every 100 girls ages 15 to 17 in correctional facilities there are 837 boys behind bars. 
For every 100 women ages 18 to 21 in correctional facilities th ere are 1430 men behind bars. 
For every 100 women ages 22 to 24 in correctional facilities there are 1448 men in correctional facilities. 
For every 100 women living in military quarters there are 642 men living in military quarters. 
For every 100 women ages 18 to 24 years living in emergency and transitional shelters there are 86 men living in similar shelters. 
For every 100 women ages 18 to 24 years living in-group homes there are 166 men of the same age living in-group homes. 
www.census.gov/topics/education/school-enrollment.html